Samstag, 7. Januar 2017

The domestication from the wolf to the dog is based on coevolution

Wir veröffentlichen hier einen Artikel, der in der aktuellen Ausgabe des wissenschaftlichen Journals "Dog Behavior" veröffentlicht ist. Es ist die Zusammenfassung der Präsentation von Daniela Pörtl und Christoph Jung auf dem Canine Science Forum 2016 in Padua, das nun nach Durchsicht durch fachkundige Wissenschaftler in dieser Form zugänglich gemacht wird (Double-blind peer-reviewed). Hier zunächst den Abstract in seiner englischen Originalfassung. In einem weiteren Artikel werden wir dazu auf Deutsch Stellung nehmen.

The domestication from the wolf to the dog is based on coevolution.
The evolutionary continuity of the brain enabled both to social contact and empathy


Keywords: domestication of dogs; stress axis; epigenetics; pro-social neurotransmitters; coevolution

Dogs, derived from wolves, have been living in human environment for millennia. During the Palaeolithic period, humans and wolves lived simultaneously as similar structured social mammals and cooperative hunters in the same ecological niche. Due to the evolutionary continuity of brain both evolved very similar refined social communication. Mirror neuron mechanism enabled both of them mutual empathy and interspecific cooperation. Enhanced social contact and empathy between humans and their associated wolf-clans started epigenetic modulation of the HPA-stress axis. Our model of the active social domestication considers that domestication is essentially an epigenetic based process of changing the interactions of HPA stress axis and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system. Both are closely cross-regulated. Changes in their interactions are of particular relevance when regarding domestication processes of animals.

Operated by epigenetic modulation social affection like licking and grooming enhance hippocampus Glucocorticoid receptor (hGCR) expression via increased serotonin and subsequently increased NGF levels binding on GRexon1;7promotorbloc. Increased hGCR density inhibits the activity of HPA stress axis. In addition, during Neolithic-period nutrition changes like methionin decrease and thryptophan increase reduced the activity of HPA stress axis via same epigenetic modulation.Thus, epigenetically decreased cortisol levels and therefore increased serotonin and oxytocin levels improved social learning capability of wolves allowing them to extend their social skills to interactions with humans. Tamed wolves could grow into domesticated social dogs able to emerge human directed behaviour. This epigenetic modulation of neurotransmitter activities is still the base of human-dog-bonding and the benefit of dog facilitated therapy.

Autors
D. Pörtl, C. Jung

References
Jung, C., Pörtl, D., 2015. Tierisch beste Freunde: Mensch und Hund - von Streicheln, Stress und Oxytocin. Schattauer-Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
Pörtl, D., Jung, C., 2013. Die aktive soziale Domestikation des Hundes: Ein neurobiologisch begründetes Modell zur Mensch-Hund-Beziehung. BoD, Norderstedt, Germany

DOG BEHAVIOR Vol 2, No 3 (2016)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4454/db.v2i3.44

Poster
Dog’s Domestication is based on coevolution with humans



 
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